Revision of predacious hyphomycetes in the Dactylella-Monacrosporium complex.

Author(s): A. RUBNER:
Details: 134 pp., (A4 format), paperback, 1996

Nematophagous hyphomycete species described in the anamorph-genera Dactylella Grove 1884, Monacrosporium Oudem. 1885, and allied genera are revised. These include most of the known predacious species that form trapping organs enabling them to capture nematodes and other microscopic animals, with the exception of Arthrobotrys Corda. The revision is mainly based on isolates kept in the Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Baarn, and about 180 of my own isolates. Preserved material was only studied as far as type specimens were concerned. Emphasis is laid on morphological characters, especially on conidium and conidiophore morphology and the type of trapping organ. In addition, a few physiological-biochemical characters were assessed in order to clarify the specific and generic delimitation. Dactylella is typified by D. minuta which is, as far as we know, a non-nematophagous species. The genus should, therefore, be reserved for non-predacious species. The large group of nematode-trapping hyphomycetes are retained in (or newly transferred to) the two genera Arthrobotrys and Monacrosporium. For practical reasons these two genera are kept distinct, though they are believed to be closely related. Their phylogeny is discussed. Drechsleromyces Subram. and Gangliophragma Subram. are regarded as synonyms of Dactylella. Drechslerella Subram., Golovinia Mekht., Monacrosporiella Subram., and Kafiaddinia Mekht. are synonymised with Monacrosporium, Dactylariopsis Mekht., Geniculifera Rifai, Nematophagus Mekht., and Woroninula Mekht. with Arthrobotrys. Thirty-nine species are accepted in Monacrosporium. All these species are described and illustrated. A teleomorph connection is reported for the first time for a species of Monacrosporium. A dichotomous key for the predacious species, primarily based on the morphology of trapping organs, is presented. A checklist of all specific epithets used in this complex (including excluded species) is provided. The following new combinations are proposed: Arthrobotrys nematopaga (Mekht. & Faisieva) A. Rubner, Dactylella cylindrospora (R.C. Cooke) A. Rubner, Monacrosporium arcuatum (Scheuer & Webster) A. Rubner, M. asthenopagum (Drechsler) A. Rubner, M. copepodii (G.L. Barron) A. Rubner, M. iridis (Ts. Watan.) A. Rubner & W. Gams, M. leptosporum (Drechsler) A. Rubner, M. lobatum (Dudd.) A. Rubner, M. multiforme (Dowsett, J. Reid & Kalkat) A. Rubner; M. tentaculatum A. Rubner & W. Gams nom. nov. replaces Laridospora appendiculata (Anastasiou) Nawawi. [p. 2]